This page is next on my list for construction, but please return later to see some discussion of Antarctic expeditions whose primary role was to investigate terrestrial magnetism, auroral phenomena, meteorology and gravity in addition to the perennial obligation to discovery new lands. I anticipate some discussion of the first wave around 1840 that included James Clark Ross, Dumont D'Urville and Charles Wilkes' voyages. There was a long break until renewed interest at the end of the nineteenth century. De Gerlache's Belgica, Borchgrevink's Southern Cross, Scott's Discovery, Von Drygalski's Gauss, Nordenskjold's Antarctic and Bruce's Scotia all deserve mention. Post World War II Australian activity using HMAS Wyatt Earp is also of interest.
The Carnegie Institution financed the construction of the Carnegie specifically as a magnetic survey vessel. This photo (National Geographic Magazine December 1922, Vol XLII, p644) shows the vessel in Lyttleton (near Christchurch) dressed in honour of Anzac Day.